Aprendiendo más de Sudáfrica: La Guerra Anglo-Bóer y sus cifras

Los Bóers eran granjeros de origen Holandeses

Bien, comentamos en el post anterior que los Boers (también llamados afrikáners), eran colonos con orígenes de Holanda, establecidos en el El Cabo, al sur del continente africano; ésto lo hicieron despojando de sus tierras a los nativos de la zona.

Para mediados del siglo XIX el descubrimiento de ricos yacimientos de diamantes y oro en la zona habitada por los boers trajo consigo el inicio de la primer guerra en 1880, conocida como Guerra de Transvaal, ésta apenas duró unos pocos meses y los británicos resultaron vencidos; sin embargo en 1999 y 1902 se reanudo la lucha por la posesión y dominio de ésta zona. Al final y después de una desgastante guerra de guerrillas los ingleses lograron vencer a los bóers, anexando Transvaal y Orange a los dominios británicos.

Algunas cifras de la Guerra:

  • 30.000 granjas y 40 pequeñas ciudades pertenecientes a los boérs fueron destruídas por parte de los británicos.

  • 116.572 hombres, mujeres y niños bóer fueron desplazados a campos de concentración ingleses, así como aproximadamente 120000 africanos negros.

  • 27.927 bóer (de los cuales 22.074 eran niños menores de 16 años) y 14.155 (actualmente se dice que la cifra puede estar más cercana a los 20.000 ) africanos negros murieron de hambre, enfermedades y penalidades. La mayoría en los campos de concentración en donde las medidas higiénicas eran escasas y la alimentación deficiente.

  • 75.000 muertos fue el costo de la guerra, divididos como sigue:

  • 22.000 soldados ingleses (de éstos, sólo 7.792 causaron baja en batalla, el resto murió por enfermedad) .

  • Entre 6.000 y 7.000 soldados de los bóer.

  • 20.000 a 28.000 civiles de los bóer

  • 20.000 africanos negros .

  • El 31 de mayo de 1902, se declaran los dos estados bóers –Orange y Transvaal- oficialmente colonias británicas.

A cambio de perder la guerra, los boer ganaron paz y una política por parte de los británicos muy complaciente para su causa, ya que entre 1906 y 1907 se aprobaron constituciones que dotaban de poder político a los afrikáners de sus dos ex-repúblicas (Transvaal y Orange).

Los Zulú y otras tribus originarias de sudáfrica se vieron perjudicadas por los acuerdos entre los Afrikáners y los ingleses

Quienes se vieron seriamente afectados después de la guerra fueron los pobladores originales de la zona, ya que los africanos quedaron excluídos del poder político y fueron forzados a devolver gran parte de las tierras que habían logrado recuperar durante el transcurso de la guerra. Aunque no oficialmente, es la raíz del Apartheid.

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